Friday, 15 August 2014

Independence Day: 68 significant events in the last 67 years

Here's a list of some of the most important events, which shaped the destiny of India in the last 67 years.


1. India gets Independence from Great Britain on August 15, 1947. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru becomes its first Prime Minister

2. Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by Nathuram Godse on January 30, 1948

3. Jammu & Kashmir joins the Union of India on October 27, 1947 after India stops an attack by Pakistani troops and tribals.

4. The state of Hyderabad ruled by the Nizam joined Union of India on Septembeer 13, 1948

5. India gets its Constitution on January 26, 1950 and becomes a Democratic Republic

6. 'Iron Man of India' and Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel dies on December 15, 1950

7. The first Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) was born at Kharagpur in West Bengal in 1950

8. First General Elections were held in 1952

9. India wins its first cricket Test match against England at Madras (now Chennai) in 1952

10. India's national carrier Air India was nationalized in 1953

11. National Film Awards established in 1954

12. The chief architect of the Constitution Dr. B R Ambedkar dies on December 6, 1956

13. Re-organisation of states based on language/linguistics takes place in 1956.

14. Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama escapes to India on March 
31, 1959


15. Two Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) were born in 1961. IIM Calcutta and IIM Ahmedabad were established by the Centre.

16. India conquers Goa. Portuguese leave Goa.

17. China attacks India in 1962. India loses the war. China withdraws.

18. Pondicherry merges with India in 1963. French return home.

19. The first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru dies on May 27, 1964. Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeds him as the PM

20. First war with Pakistan in 1965. India defeats Pakistan

21. The second Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri dies in Tashkent. Indira Gandhi succeeds him as PM

22. Green Revolution makes India a self sufficient country in food grains in the 1960s

23. The Indian National Congress (INC) splits at Bangalore in 1969

24. India defeats Pakistan in the 1971 war. Independent Bangladesh comes into existence in 1971

25. Smiling Buddha (MEA designation: Pokhran-I) is an assigned codename of India's first nuclear weapon explosion, which took place on May 18, 1974

26. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposes Emergency, suspends Constitution and fundamental rights

27. India wins Hockey World Cup in 1975. Sikkim

28. Emergency lifted and Lok Sabha elections were held in 1977. India Gandhi-led Congress loses power. Morarjee Desai led Janata Party comes to power

29. Mother Teresa gets Nobel Peace Prize in 1979

30. Janata Party loses power. India Gandhi returns as the Prime Minister in 1980

31. India hosts Asiad Games in 1982 in Delhi.

32. Kapil Dev led India wins World Cup Cricket in 1983. Surprises and shocks the World.

33. Maruti Suzuki cars hit the market in 1983.

34. Operation Blue Star at the Golden Temple in Amritsar in 1984. Militancy in Punjab.

35. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi assassinated by her own body guards in 1984. Her son Rajiv Gandhi takes charge as the PM.

36. Rajiv Gandhi starts telecom and computer revolution in 1985.

37. Shah Bano case and enactment of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986. The most controversial provision of the Act was that it gave a Muslim woman the right to maintenance for the period of iddat (about three months) after the divorce, and shifted the onus of maintaining her to her relatives or the Wakf Board. The Act was seen as discriminatory as it denied divorced Muslim women the right to basic maintenance which women of other faiths had recourse to under secular law.

38. Rajiv Gandhi orders unlocking of disputed Ram Mandir at Ayodhya.

39. Bofors scam rocks India in 1987.

40. Rajiv Gandhi-led Congress loses power at the Centre. VP Singh heads a Janata Dal-led government. 11 months later, Chandrashekhar succeeds him as PM.

41. LK Advani takes out a Rath Yathra to build Ram Mandir at Ayodhya

42. Former PM Rajiv Gandhi assassinated near Madras by the LTTE suicide bombers in 1991.

43. The Congress returns to power at the Centre. PV Narasimha Rao becomes the PM. He appoints Dr. Manmohan Singh as his Finance Minister. Together, they start economic reforms.

44. Ram Janmabhumi movements peaks. Babri Masjid demolished on December 6, 1992.

45. The first mobile cellular phone was launched in India in 1995.

46. The private airlines were given licenses by the PV Narasimha Rao government.

47. India's Information Technology boom begins in mid 1990s.

48. The PM PVN Rao loses election. The first ever BJP led government comes to power under the Prime Ministership of AB Vajpayee. He resigns within 13 days. HD Deve Gowda succeeds him as the new Prime Minister.

49. The Prime Minister AB Vajpayee led NDA government comes to power in 1998.

50. India conducts the second Nuclear test at Pokhran in 1998.

51. Sonia Gandhi enters politics. Removes Sitaram Kesri as the AICC president.

52. Kargil war breaks out with Pakistan in 1999.

53. AB Vajpayee-led NDA returns to power in October 1999.

54. Infosys Technologies became the first Indian company to be listed on the US NASDAQ in March 1999.

55. Several dozen TV news channels start operation across India. Three new states - Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand - are created.

56. Pakistan backed terrorists attack Parliament building in 2001.

57. K Chandrashekhararao starts Telangana movement in 2001.

58. NDA loses power in 2004. The Congress returns to power. Dr. Manmohan Singh becomes the PM.

59. Devastating Tsunami hits India's southern coast, killing thousands in 2004.

60. India witnesses a boom of low cost airlines in 2005.

61. Abhinav Bindra wins India's first individual Olympics gold medal in the 2008 Beijing Games. India sends a mission to the Moon. Mission 'Chandrayaan' was a big success.

62. The Congress-led UPA retains power at the Centre in 2009 Lok Sabha polls.

63. India hosts Commonwealth Games in Delhi in 2010.

64. CWG and 2G scams hit India.

65. Anna Hazare starts anti-corruption campaign in 2011.

66. Narendra Modi declared BJP's Prime Ministerial candidate in 2013.

67. India launches Mars Mission. Sends a probe vehicle to the Mars in 2013.

68. Narendra Modi led BJP/NDA sweeps Lok Sabha polls in 2014. Congress suffers worst ever defeat since Independence. First time a non-Congress party gets absolute majority on its own in the Lok Sabha.

67 Years of Independence


India is a nation with a very rich historic background. The Independence Day, India (Swatantrata Divas) is celebrated on the 15th August to commemorate its independence from the 150 years British rule and its birth as a sovereign nation on that day in 1947. It is one of the 3 national holidays in the country. Flag hoisting and distribution of sweets is done all over the country. This is a proud day for the Indians. The prime minister raises the national flag at the Red Fort in New Delhi, and delivers a nationally televised speech from its ramparts, which is viewed by millions of nationals. He highlights achievements of the government, important issues and gives a call for further development through his speech.


On the eve of 15th August 1947, India tricolor (saffron, green and white) flag was first hoisted by Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, at the Red Fort of Delhi.


The Independence Day is celebrated with great enthusiasm in all over the India. On this day tributes are paid to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives to gain the freedom for India. The main event takes place in New Delhi, where the Prime Minister hoists the National Flag at the Red Fort accompanied with the gun shots, parade, amazing live performances and music. On this day many political leaders appear at the public events and talk about the nation's heritage, laws, history, people, about recent events and future projects.


"Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we will redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance.... We end today a period of ill fortune, and India discovers herself again." 

Jawaharlal Nehru (Speech on Indian Independence Day, 15th August 1947)

History of the Independence Day


On third June, Lord Mountbatten announced the partitioning of the British Empire into an India and Pakistan under the Independence Day, India act 1947. At the stroke of midnight 1947, India became an independent nation, which was preceded by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's spine chiller speech titled Tryst with destiny. It went as follows:

At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. We end today a period of ill fortune, and India discovers herself again.

Celebrations



In the capital New Delhi most of the Government Offices are lit up. Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programs take place in all the state capitals. In the cities around the country the Flag Hoisting Ceremony is done by politicians belonging to that constituency. Schools and colleges around the country organise flag hoisting ceremony and various cultural activities within their respective premises. In various private organisations the Flag Hoisting Ceremony is carried out by a Senior officer of that organisation Families and friends get together for lunch or dinner, or for an outing. Housing colonies, cultural centres, clubs and societies hold entertainment programmes and competitions, usually based on the freedom theme. Most of all is that the people flu colourful kites in the sky. It is a long traditional thing,and the skies look very beautiful and colourful.Hence, Independence day in india is a very important and cheerful occasion.






Wednesday, 15 January 2014

The Flying Sikh "MILKHA SINGH"





Early Life 

Milkha Singh was born on 17 October 1935 at Govindpura,a village 10 kilometres  from Muzaffargarh city in Punjab Province,British India (now Muzaffargarh District, Pakistan) in a Sikh Rathore Rajput family.He was one of 15 siblings, eight of whom died before the Partition of India. He was orphaned during the Partition, when his parents, a brother and two sisters were killed in the violence that ensued. He witnessed these killings.Escaping the troubles in Punjab, where killings of Hindus and Sikhs were continuing,by moving to Delhi, India, in 1947, Singh lived for a short time with a married sister and was briefly imprisoned at Tihar jail for travelling on a train without a ticket. His sister, Ishvar, sold some jewellery to obtain his release.He spent some time at a refugee camp in Purana Quila and at a resettlement colony in Shahdara, both in Delhi.

Introduction to Athletics 




Singh tried to get into the Army 3 times, but was rejected. Finally, his brother Malkhan Singh helped him get into the Electrical Mechanical Engineering branch of the Army in 1952, and it was there that he participated at the first sports meet in his life.

Making of a Champion 


Under the guidance of his mentor Havaldar Gurdev Singh, Milkha began training hard and harder at the Army to become an accomplished Athlete. He showed his prowess for the first time at the Services Athletic Meet 1955, wherein he finished 2nd in the 200m and 400m race events. After delivering a much better performance and winning both the events at the National Games 1956 held at Patiala, Milkha went on to break the 200m and 400m records in the National Games 1958, held at Cuttack. He clocked 46.1m in 400m at National Games 1960 that was considered to be a World class performance of that time. But, his best had still to arrive.

International Career 



Milkha represented the nation in the Melbourne Olympic Games 1956, his first Olympic event. Although he couldn’t fare quite well at the event being less experienced at the time, he learnt a lot from the competition to prepare himself well for the future meets. The most important occasion in Milkha’s career arrived in the form of Rome Olympic Games 1960. In the first heat of 400m race at the Rome Olympic Games, he covered the race at 47.6 seconds and finished at 2nd position. In the second heat he further improved his timing and grabbed 2nd position again with a timing of 46.5 seconds. Karl Kaufman of Germany had outclassed him this time. In the Semi Final heat he still finished at 2nd place, although this time he further improved the timing with 45.9, beaten by only Ottis Davis of USA. In the final round of the coveted race, Milkha went off like an arrow and left all other competitors behind till the distance of 250m. It was when he miscalculated his own speed and committed the blunder of his lifetime and perhaps the history of Indian Athletics, by slowing down a bit. Although he tried the hardest of his lifetime to recover the distance, the other opponents had lagged him behind enough for him to catch them again. The competition was so tough that Ottis Davis and Karl Kaufman clocked 44.8 seconds, while Malcolm Spence of South Africa covered the race in 45.5 seconds. Milkha, who was initially leading the race, finished just 0.1 seconds later by Spence, clocking 45.6 seconds. The difference was so minute that the announcement was initially held up and further declared after a photo-finish. Thus Milkha, who was a favorite for the Gold, lost a Bronze by a whisker, probably the closest an Indian Athlete could get to an Olympic Medal till now.

The Golden Period 



Probably the best period during Milkha’s career as an Athlete arrived between the year 1958 and 1960. He won Gold Medals in both 200m and 400m events at the Tokyo Asian Games 1958, clocking 21.6 seconds and 47 seconds respectively. At the Cardiff Commonwealth Games held the same year, he improved his 400m timing to 46.16 seconds, and grabbed a Gold Medal again.

Milkha Singh got name  “ Flying Sikh” 



During the 1950s, Singh's biggest rival was Abdul Khaliq, a runner from Pakistan.In 1960, Pakistan invited him to compete in Pakistan but, scarred by the trauma of Partition, Singh refused. It was only after then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru convinced him to go that Singh went to Pakistan. One of the spectators who turned up to see Khaliq and Singh compete was General Ayub Khan. Singh won the race, and when Khan was giving away the medals, he told Singh, "You didn't run today, you flew." The Flying Singh nickname caught on from then.Milkha Singh defeated the Fastest Pakistani runner Abdul Khaliq who had won a 100m Gold Medal at Tokyo Asian Games 1958 in the year 1962, and the Pakistani President Ayub Khan named him ‘The Flying Sikh'

Milkha Singh and Arjuna Award 



Milkha Singh, probably the most celebrated Indian athlete of all times, refused to accept the Arjuna Award for lifetime contribution, saying: “I have been clubbed with sportspersons who are nowhere near the level that I had achieved”.Milkha Singh said that  Arjuna Awards, instituted in 1961, were being given to those who did not deserve them. “I am against this award itself and the way it is awarded”. He said he was of the view that the national sports awards like the Arjuna should be decided by specialists who had a deep understanding of the subject.It is of no use giving such awards to such persons who might produce one freak performance during their lifetime. He also alleged that athletes took to drugs to perform better at home, but once they go abroad they are totally exposed since abroad all athletes are tested for drugs. Milkha Singh wrote in the letter. The prestige of the award has gone down. I will get a bad name if I accept it, Milkha Singh said adding it is surprising that organizers of Asian and other games have also been honored with national awards, especially after the 1982 Delhi Asian Games.’’Milkha Singh said that “after the Padma Shri in 1958, the Arjuna Award in 2001 looks as if the government is trying to give me a matric certificate after an MA degree. The Arjuna Award, least to say, could have been given to me in 1961 when it was first instituted.

Awards & Honors 



Honoring the incredible and hitherto the best performance by any Indian Athlete that Milkha Singh delivered throughout his sports career, he was bestowed upon the Padma Shri award (1958) and the Arjuna Award by the Government of India.Milkha Singh ran 80 races all over the world winning 77, He was awarded the Helms World Trophy in 1959 by the USA by virtue of being the best 400-metre runner in the world and broke the Olympic record in the 1960 Rome Olympics.

Awards 

1)Gold Medal - 1958 Commonwealth Games - 400 m
2)Gold Medal - 1958 Asian Games - 200 m and 400 m
3)Gold Medal - 1962 Asian Games
4)Padma Shri – 1958
5)Helms World Trophy – 1959

82-Year-old Milkha Singh  told to PTI 



My last desire before I leave this world is that I want an Indian boy or a girl wins an Olympic gold medal for the country and for my sake. I failed to win it in Rome Olympics in 1960.After 2-3 years, I may be no more. Whether I will live for next few years more, it is up to God. I want to see an Indian win an Olympic gold in athletics.Since India gained Independence, only five reached the finals in athletics event and all failed to win a medal.

1)Milkha Singh
2)Gurbachan Singh Randhawa (1964)
3)Shri Ram Singh (1976)
4)PT Usha (1984)
5) Anju George.

Monday, 22 October 2012

Success Of 1965 & 1971



                                     Indo-Pak War of 1965




The second war began in Apr., 1965, when fighting broke out in the Rann of Kachchh,a sparsely inhabited region along the West Pakistan–India border.In August fighting spread to Kashmir and to the Punjab, and in September Pakistani and Indian troops crossed the partition line between the two countries and launched air assaults on each other's cities. After threats of intervention by China had been successfully opposed by the United States and Britain, Pakistan and India agreed to a UN-sponsored cease-fire and withdrew to the pre-August lines. Prime Minister Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri of India andPresident Ayub Khan of Pakistan met in Tashkent, USSR (now in Uzbekistan), in Jan., 1966,and signed an agreement pledging continued negotiations and respect for the cease-fire conditions. After the Tashkent Declaration another period of relative peace ensued.

                                     Indo-Pak War of 1971




Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding greater autonomy. The fighting forced 10 million East Pakistani Bengalis to flee to India. When Pakistan attacked Indian airfields in Kashmir, India attacked both East and West Pakistan. It occupied the eastern half, which declared its independence as Bangladesh, on Dec. 6, 1971. Under great-power pressure, a UN cease-fire was arranged in mid-December, after Pakistan's defeat. Pakistan lost its eastern half, an army of 100,000 soldiers, and was thrown into political turmoil. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto emerged as leader of Pakistan, and Mujibur Rahman as prime minister of Bangladesh. Tensions were alleviated by the Shimla accord of 1972, and by Pakistan's recognition of Bangladesh in 1974, but tensions have periodically recurred.






Wednesday, 29 August 2012

BSF “Duty Unto Death”


Border Security Force

Introduction



The Border Security Force (BSF) is a Border Guarding Force of India. Established on December 1, 1965, it is a paramilitary force charged with guarding India's land border during peace time and preventing transnational crime. It is a Union Government Agency under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs.It is one of many law enforcement agency of India.It currently stands as the world's largest border guarding force.

The BSF, in its 41 years of existence, has emerged as an elite force of the country having excelled with distinction in the 1971 war with Pakistan. Its ethos is “Any task, any time, any where” and the BSF has given blood and sweat to execute its motto “Duty Unto Death”.

Formation



Till 1965 India’s borders with Pakistan were manned by the State Armed Police Battalion. Pakistan attacked Sardar Post, Chhar Bet and Beria Bet on 9 April, 1965 in Kutch. This exposed the inadequacy of the State Armed Police to cope with armed aggression due to which the Government of India felt the need for a specialized centrally controlled Border Security Force, which would be armed and trained to man the International Border with Pakistan. As a result of the recommendations of the Committee of Secretaries, the Border Security Force came into existence on 01 Dec 1965, and Shri K F Rustamji was the first chief and founding father.

Organisation



The Border Security Force has its Head Quarters at New Delhi and is known as Force Head Quarter (FHQ) headed by a Director General. Various Directorates like Operations, Communications & IT, Training, Engineering, General, Law, Provisioning, Administration, Personnel, Medical, Finance etc. function under the DG. Each Directorate is headed by an IG. The Eastern Theater is looked after by Spl DG HQ at Kolkata and the Western Theater is looked after by Spl DG HQ at Chandigarh.Field Formations in BSF are headed by an IG and are known as Frontiers Head Quarters (FtrHQ). There are 10 such Frontier under which Sector Head Quarters (SHQ) function headed by a DIG each. There are 31 such Sectors. Each SHQ has under its command 4–5 Duty Battalions. Presently 186 Battalions are sanctioned to BSF. Five major training institutions and 10 Subsidiary Training Centres (STCs) are imparting ab-initio as well as in-service training to its ranks and other CPOs/SPOs including IPS Probationers.

BSF is the only Indian paramilitary force to have its own Air Wing, Marine Wing and artillery regiments, which support the General Duty Battalions in their operations.

The BSF also has a national level school for breeding and training of dogs. Dogs from other CPOs and State Police are sent to National Training Centre for Dogs (NTCD) to be trained in infantry patrol, detection of explosives and tracking.

The BSF maintains a Tear Smoke Unit (TSU), which is unique in India. The TSU is responsible for producing tear gas munitions required for the Anti-Riot Forces. It also exports a substantial quantity to other countries.

Two battalions of the BSF, located at Kolkata and Guwahati, are designated as the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF). Each battalion maintains 18 self-contained specialist search and rescue teams of 45 personnel each, including engineers, technicians, electricians, dog squads and medical/paramedics. The establishment of each battalion is 1,158 personnel. The NDRF is a multi-disciplinary, multi-skilled, high-tech force for all types of disasters and can deploy to disasters by air, sea and land. The battalions are equipped and trained for all natural disasters including combating nuclear disaster, biological and chemical disasters.

ROLE OF THE BSF



SECURITY OF BORDER OF India and matters connected therewith.

TASKS OF THE BSF

The tasks of the BSF are divided as follows:

1.  Peace time



  • Promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.
  • Prevent trans border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India.
  • Prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity.

 In the last few years the BSF has, in addition to their duties, been deployed for counter insurgency and internal security duties

2.  War Time



  • Holding ground in less threatened sectors.
  • Protection of vital installations.
  • Assistance in control of refugees.
  • Anti-infiltration duties in specified areas.

 Some Important Facts




  • The BSF contributes every year a number of personnel for services for UN Mission.

  • During the Kargil conflict in May-July 1999, the BSF remained on the heights of the mountains and defended the integrity of the country with all the might at its command in unison with the Army.

  • BSF personnel have been performing Internal Security Duty in Manipur for the last two years and have been successfully fighting insurgency in those areas.
  • During the earthquake in Gujarat on 26th January 2001, the BSF was the first to reach out to help the distressed people.

  • During the communal disturbances in Gujarat recently, BSF personnel went all out to restore amity and brotherhood among the people.

  • The BSF took over the erection of the border fencing in Jammu & Kashmir and it was successful in its task despite all attempts of Pakistan to scuttle our efforts.

  • The BSF has been defending the borders along with the army and checking infiltration on the borders during the current standoff with Pakistan.